So, how did they get there? A vast arsenal of remarkable molecular devices endow the chromosome with properties that ensure its own survival. See the Firstscience news story. The electronic and energetic aspects of the molecules correspond to their physical and chemical properties. However, during all large mass extinctions both surface planktonic and some deep-water benthic marine organisms become extinct.
Double strand breaks can cause the loss of the original genetic information more than single strand breaks. As discussed in The Vital Vastness ionizing radiation breaks chromosomes, the genes can then be self-corrected and duplicated.
Calcium-bearing, surface dwelling shellfish, such as foraminifera, are so frequently replaced by new species after extinction that they are used to date rocks i. The electrical or electrostatic potential of the DNA helix is large and attracts chemically active substances counterions effectively.
To see a partial discussion and excerpts on this event see the web page on the Dinosaur Extinctions. The new types are so totally different they must be put into new classifications, hence a decrease in the number of members for each classification per taxon rates and an overall increase in diversity towards the present.
Again, this fact argues in favor of a different scenario, as does the survival of the honeybee. The evidence is again that ionizing radiation is responsilbe for a mass extinction.
Species are not produced by competition in terms of natural selection, but by genetic mutation on a broad scale brought on by ionizing radiation, and other factors electrostatic fields, magnetic reversals, pulsed radio-frequency fields, microwaves, hydrocarbons and alkalinity produced by the Fields, and the particles which flow within them neutrons, gamma-rays, X-rays and energetic electrons.
See also the Sciencedaily. The fossil record discloses that, compared to animals, plants are much less vulnerable to mass extinctions and do not show the cycles or episodes of extinction.
Chromosomes are known to have increased lengthwise as evolution progressed from the simplest to the more complex organisms prokaryotes to eukaryotes.
This holds true for all time periods. Also see the next entry. Survival of the fittest merely plays a minor, at best, secondary role. This Field-latitude segregation is also true for both open ocean pelagic and bottom-dwelling benthic shellfish invertebratesfish, reptiles and mammals.
Scientists claim that it is super-fast electons hitting the molecules in the air, but they are at a loss as to why the electrons are so reved up, and this is because they do not yet know of FEM whose fields accelerate particles. Under high doses there is a great deal of mutation e.
The finds of mummified fossils are particularly confined to the end of the Cretaceous, such as this one, which is 65 million years old.
This occurs with all mass extinctions, though little is discussed on mass speciations. This sort of thing has happened many times before, and is known as the Lazarus Effect a scientific term that has roots in the biblical Lazarus who died and came back to life.
That is, a major explosion of new species coinsided with either a huge shift in plate tectonics or polar wander. Often one or both strands of the DNA helix break leading to cross-links between DNA molecules, chemically active sites ring openings in purine typesor liberation of a base N-glycoside bond breakage.
And reduced magnetic field strengths have produced profound irreversible body mutations in higher animals. The history of life clearly shows a blossoming of new species after extinctions. As discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on plants show that plants often undergo polyploidy alterations.
Then electrostatic effects alter active sites, and due to electronic and magnetic properties of the molecules i. Small sections of chromosomes, known as alleles, are in the thousands, but only 10 or need change to produce a whole new genus a group of related species.
This was reported in the journal Geology [Source: They suggest that this is the cause of mass extinctions, but it is really just one of the geophysical aspects of those times when there are mass extinctions.
Wolfgang Kiessling Paleoecology: The simplest mechanism for accomplishing this lengthening involves the rearrangement of preexisting identical, small DNA sequences into longer groups. This is addressed in The Vital Vastness. Soft tissue still preserved after 68 million years is stirring up things in palenotology, because tissue, especially soft tissue, is not supposed to be able to survive such a stretch of time without decaying; that is in the typical scenario.
Recognition of protein interactions with DNA or RNA entails the electronic features of the molecules and their steric arrangement.
Observations indicate mitochondrial DNA evolves at a rate that is five to ten times faster than nuclear DNA in various types of organisms. Microwaves and ionizing radiation dry vegetation, and the decay of neutrons produces lightning that could ignite wildfires, which are also recorded throughout the geologic record during these times.
Berardelli, P, Mass Extinction: Here, There and Everywhere -- Mass Extinctions, Mass Speciations and Paleobiogeography Studies of mass extinctions have uncovered facts that are predictable when considering the possibility that there are events with increased levels of ionizing radiation.
That is, the scenario includes a huge light-shrouding cloud of debris killing off all vegeataion, which the insects depend on.Mass extinctions lead to an increase in the rate of ultimedescente.com few species that manage to survive after a mass extinction event have less competition for food, shelter, and sometimes even mates if they are one of the last individuals of their species still alive.
The most studied mass extinction, between the Cretaceous and Paleogene periods about 65 million years ago, killed off the dinosaurs and made room for mammals to rapidly diversify and evolve.
"Mass extinction fundamentally changes the dynamics. It changes the composition of the biosphere forever. You can't simply predict the winners and losers from what groups have done before," he said. A new study indicates that mass extinctions affect the pace of evolution, not just in the immediate aftermath of catastrophe, but for millions of years to follow.
A new study indicates that mass. In this way, mass extinction prunes whole branches off the tree of life. But mass extinction can also play a creative role in evolution, stimulating the growth of other branches. The sudden disappearance of plants and animals that occupy a specific habitat creates new opportunities for surviving species.
Surprising research has shown that mass extinctions, despite being, well, mass extinctions, may actually have a positive effect on evolution. Bear with us here. In research published in the.Download